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Четыре темперамента. Гравюры 15-19 век

"Четыре темперамента"-The Four Temperaments. Гравюры, 15-19 век.






The Four Temperaments, represented by four horsemen in roundels in four columns, each identified with one of the four elements, and with twenty lines of verse below. c.1480/90
Woodcut with xylographic text and hand-colouring


The Four Temperaments, Phlegmatic, Sanguine, Melancholic, Choleric



The Four Temperaments, Phlegmatic, Sanguine, Melancholic, Choleric




Print made by Albrecht Dürer
Date
1515 (circa)
'This mysterious group of figures stands out in Dürer's work. The neutral title given here was first used by Bartsch in 1808, but the print has also been entitled 'The Dismayed Husband' (Hüsgen, 1798) 'The Bath' (Heller, 1827) and 'The Desperate Man' (von Retberg, 1871). Panofsky interpreted the print in terms of Dürer's continuing interest in the types of melancholy to affect the human condition which so preoccupied medical men of the day; with for example, the man in the centre, who apparently tears his hair, signifying choleric melancholy, the sleeping figure representing phlegmatic melancholy and the pleasure-seeking satyr representing sanguine melancholy.



--------------------------Серии гравюр---------




The Sanguine Temperament; whole-length female figure seated among clouds in profile to left; holding a lyre in her left hand and pointing to a musical score with her right hand; at lower right a peacock, at upper left a horse; from a series of four engravings
After Georg Pencz
Date
1530-1562

After Georg Pencz
Date
1530-1562


The Melancholic Temperament; whole-length female figure seated on stone blocks, turned to left; holding a pair of dividers in her left hand and resting her head on her right hand; a stag at lower left; a swan at upper right and a plinth at lower right; from a series of four engravings; stained at upper right.
After Georg Pencz
Date
1530-1562

The Phlegmatic Temperament; whole-length female figure seated on water in profile to right; holding a spit in her right hand and a rattle in her left hand; an owl perched on her right shoulder, an ass standing at left; from a series of four engravings.
After Georg Pencz
Date
1530-1562



------------------- Maarten van Heemskerck-----------------




Maarten van Heemskerck (After); Harmen Jansz. Muller (Print made by); Sanguine; Jupiter and Venus sit on a cloud with an eagle and Cupid
1566



Melancholy; Saturn holding a scythe devours a child and gnaws its leg; below a man hangs himself by the neck from a tree; another figure stoops over a globe with a compass and right-angle etc; after Heemskerck. 1566




Title-page; oval cartouche for title in centre with ornamental surround with female personifications of the four temperaments in the corners: Phlegma (holding bow), Sanguis (semi-naked), Melancolia (in a nun's habit) and Cholera (in armour with a spear); also the four elements between in ovals and circles represented by animals: Aer (chameleon), Aqua (dolphin), Ignis (salamander) and Terra (bear); on full sheet; after Maarten de Vos. 1581
Print made by Adriaen Collaert


---------------------------After Marten de Vos-----------------------

The Sanguine Temperament, after Marten de Vos; half-length figures of a man playing the lute and a woman holding a song-book and leaning on his shoulder, a table before them with flowers, fruit and a book, figures behind dancing or at archery near a windmill
After Marten de Vos
Date
1546-1603



The four temperaments and ages of man / Phlegmaticus
Published by Raphael Sadeler I
After Marten de Vos
Date
1583 (c.)

----------------------------1610----------------------


: Wellcome Library, London
Warrior with fire on coat of arms, corresponding to temperament based on choleric humour. Part of a set of figures representing the four temperaments, (It. 'complessioni') determined by the four humours, and showing their affinities with the elements.
Woodcut circa 1610


Woodcut circa 1610


Woodcut circa 1610

Woodcut circa 1610


----------------------------George Glover --------------------



The Fowre Complexions / Phlegmatick
The phlegmatic temperament: a three-quarter-length woman with glass of wine and pipe of tobacco. c.1630
Print made by George Glover
Date
1625-1635


The Fowre Complexions / Melancholly
Print made by George Glover
Date
1625-1635

The choleric temperament: a three-quarter-length woman with her hands to her hips looking angry. c.1630
Print made by George Glover

The sanguine temperament
Print made by George Glover
--------------------------------

Wellcome Library, London
Allegorical depictions of the four temperaments formed by the four humours: melancholicus.
Engraving By: J. D. Nessenthaler
Collection: Iconographic Collections


Allegorical engraving, humours: phlegmatic; 18th century

Temperaments formed by the four humours: sanguine
-------------------


Wellcome Library, London
Four heads of men who each exhibit one of the four temperaments: (clockwise from top left) lymphatic, sanguine, bilious, and nervous. Engraving by W. Johnson and A.K. Johnson, early 19th century.
after: W. Johnson and A.K. Johnson




------------------Melancholia-Меланхолия-----------------------


Print made by Albrecht Dürer
Date
1514
Melancholia; a winged woman representing Melancholy wearing a wreath is sitting amongst numerous objects, including a bell, hourglass, scales, and a magic square; with a putto sitting on a grindstone, next to which a dog is sleeping; in the background a bat is flying, carrying a banner with the inscription 'Melencolia I'; in the foreground are carpenter tools and a sphere. 1514

Melencoliaprint; Sebald Beham (Print made by); Melancholy; winged whole-length female figure seated on a plinth; her head resting on her left hand
Print made by Sebald Beham
Date
1539



Allaert Claesz. (Print made by); Melancholia seated; a wood planing tool on the ground and a saw Engraving
1520-1530


Print made by Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
Melancholia; a woman seated on the ground with a skull, celestial globe, cat, tomb and a painter's palette. c.1645/7



Drawn by Rembrandt
Date
1635-1640


Print made by Antonio Maria Zanetti II
Date
1760



Parmigianino (After); Antonio Maria Zanetti I (Print made by); An elegantly dressed woman representing Melancholia seated facing right,1726


Drawn by Frederick Sandys
Study for the woman in the wood-engraving 'Until her Death', an illustration to 'Good Words', 1862; whole-length and sitting in profile to left, her chin resting in her right hand, also separate study of latter detail, and studies of a hand and part of her garment
Graphite


'Until her Death', a woman seated on the ground with hand to chin looking at a figure of Death; proof of an illustration to 'Good Words', 1862




---------------------------Сангвиники-------------------



Four temperaments / La complexion sanguine
print; Jean Mariette (Published by); Young woman seated playing the lute, with fountain and garden behind her. c.1690-1720




Les Caractères / Le Sanguin
Print made by Nicolas Bonnart I
Date
1690-1710


----------------------Холерики---------------------------




The choleric temperament; a soldier, three-quarter length, with a pole and cooking pot over his shoulder besides a lady clutching a toy dog with a cock perched on a bundle on her shoulder; she also has vegetables in a pouch and dead game birds tied to her belt; after Maarten de Vos
Print made by Pieter de Jode I
1600 (circa)




The Choleric Temperament
Crispijn de Passe the elder (Print made by); The Choleric Temperament; three soldiers playing backgammon


----------------------------Флегматики---------------------



The phlegmatic temperament; a sailor with a net and anchor besides a fishwife with a bucket of fish on her lap; after Maarten de Vos.

Print made by Pieter de Jode I objects)
After Marten de Vos
Date
1600 (circa)





----------------------------------

After Christian Bernhard Rode
Date
1788
Allegorical representation of the four temperaments; each is personified by a male figure: in the foreground, the 'sanguine' holding up a glass of wine; the 'choleric', a grim-looking man accompanied by a turkey to right; ' melancholy', a weeping figure to left, and in the centre, a sleeping man with a turtle next to him symbolising the 'lethargic'. 1788






Wind-vane brass; brass; octagonal; one foot missing; one replacement foot; cup-shaped compass box with engraved flange; engraved tripod stand; upper surface of plate marked with network of 32 triangles with compass points, associated weather, temperaments or elements; engraved geometric and decorative patterns
Made in Germany
Date
1585-1595
This instrument consists of a gilt brass plate, with a compass in a cup-shaped box in the centre. The compass is surmounted by a tripod where a small metal piece, the wind vane itself, is fixed.



http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/indexplus/result.html
http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Four_Temperaments.html
http://www.britishmuseum.org/default.aspx
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